The whole joint is stabilised by ligaments and tendons, which are attached to the bones. Rubbery cartilage provides cushioning and shock absorption, while hard, slippery cartilage enables smooth movement.
Ligament injury (rupture or partial tear) can be caused by sudden twisting, pivoting, changing direction suddenly or by a blow to the front or side of the knee.
Most commonly performed surgery: anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.
The rubbery meniscus cartilage can get injured by twisting, pivoting or through direct contact.
Most commonly performed surgery: damaged meniscus cartilage can be removed or repaired using arthroscopic techniques.
The hard articular cartilage can get injured by trauma, general wear and tear or poor blood supply to the joint.
Most commonly performed surgery: If the damage to the articular cartilage is significant it may be necessary to carry out micro fracture surgery or chondroplasty.
The patella is a small bone embedded in the back of the quadricep tendon, which connects the thigh-bone (femur) with the shin-bone (tibia). Patella injuries can be caused by damage to the muscles that are attached to the patella tendon, a fracture of the kneecap, cartilage tear, and dislocation of the knee joint.
Most commonly performed surgery: patella debridement/micro fracture