These all work together to provide the body with support, balance, and mobility. A structural flaw or malfunction in one part can result in the development of problems elsewhere in the body.
As with many other parts of the body, problems in the foot are usually caused by injury, wear and tear, bone disease or congenital flaws. Environmental factors, such as poorly-fitting shoes or high-heeled shoes, or running and walking on flat, hard ground can all damage the foot.
If there is too much pressure on the inside of the foot at the base of the big toe, the big toe is forced towards the other toes. A hard, bony lump forms on the joint, causing pain, inflammation and swelling.
Most commonly performed surgery: Scarf osteotomy.
Osteoarthritis can cause the big toe to become stiffened, swollen and painful, making walking difficult.
Most commonly performed surgery: debridement, cheilectomy or fusion.
The lesser toes can be deformed as a result of ill-fitting or high-heeled shoes, or injury to the tendons in the foot. The toes become buckled and stiffened, leading to calluses, bony lumps, sores and pain.
Most commonly performed surgery: arthroplasty, fusion.
A nerve in the ball of the foot gets pinched between a ligament and a bone. It occurs as a result of wearing too-tight shoes, an injury to the foot or a flat foot. It can cause pain in the ball of the foot and the toes.
Most commonly performed surgery: Excision through a dorsal approach.
Stress fractures or trauma fractures can cause displacement of the bones in the foot. This can result in pain, swelling and poor foot function.
Most commonly performed surgery: Anatomical surgical reconstruction.